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Comments - Total of 37 Comments on 23 Articles and 1 Poem

At the end of each article and poem published, we have given you the opportunity to send us your comments. Below we have published the most interesting views received. (Click on the article titles below to jump to the comments on this page, or on 'Read Me' to read the article in question, which will open in a new window)

If you would like to have your say on the comments below, or on any of our articles or poems, please e-mail us.

You can also click on the following link to see our entire archive of Science Articles

Ancient Falconry (1) Read Me The Space Hopping Hyperplane (1) Read Me
Space Lasers take to the Winds (1) Read Me The Theory of Everything (2) Read Me
Memories are Made of This (1) Read Me Sonnet to Science (1) (Poem) Read Me
Aquatic Culture (3) Read Me The Age of El Nino (2) Read Me
Do Women prefer 'manly' faces? (1) Read Me Terraforming Mars? (1) Read Me
Spaceships of the Future (3) Read Me Plastics You Could Eat (1) Read Me
Alien Contact (2) Read Me Recipe For The Universe (1) Read Me
Are we Alone? (1) Read Me Super-Thunderstorms on Jupiter (1) Read Me
Supernova Sheds Light on Dark Energy (1) Read Me
Ocean Forces Threaten Our Climate (1) Read Me
A Beginners's Guide to Antimatter (1) Read Me
Extinction! (4) Read Me
Earth's Fidgeting Climate (1) Read Me
The Audacious Space Elevator (2) Read Me
Hitching a Ride on a Magnetic Bubble  (4) Read Me

Top - Michael Richards, Ancient Falconry
To comment on the article by Keith Dobney on this subject, we may surmise that the greater abundance of vulture and buzzard bones (than of falcon bones) at the archaeological sites would seem to indicate that the first animals domesticated by humans would have not been hunting-birds, which cannot in any case furnish their masters with enough food to be worth the effort of maintaining them (but are purely an amusement to entertain nobility). Instead it would indicate a domestication of carrion-eating birds to guide humans to the sites of large already-dead animal-carcasses, which humans could feed on along with their pet-vultures. Hunting used to be a very daunting task at that epoch for humans, before they had invented the bow-and-arrow. After the invention of the bow-and-arrow, domestication of vultures would have generally ceased (though they were still domesticated by tribes in California, and the ancient Egyptians continued to regard them as sacred).

Top - Wayne Amber, Space Lasers take to the Winds
The most commonly used air pollutant modelling techniques make use of extremely complex fluid flow models produced by expensive computer programmes. With the introduction of the new laser based monitoring system described in the article, an easier and more accurate real time modelling system could be developed. The more accurately we can monitor and define the 'actual' flow patterns in the atmosphere, the less we need to depend upon the underlying 'theory' and the problem is simplified. The potential for such a system could allow for governments to control cross-boundary air pollutants much more efficiently, and cut down on the harmful pollutants which contaminate our air. Further to this, the article explains how the Lidar sytem could be applied to water flow patterns. A very similar modelling technique could be used here.

Top - Kathryn Padmore, Memories Are Made of This
This isn't as simple as you have painted the picture to be. Being in history I have first hand experience of what it is like to try and remember dates and names and not to mention the actual fact themselves. I don't know about you but this would tend to confuse me even more then before. Ok say this does work for a while and you go on you merry way remembering everything with a story or tale that you have created. Then in ten years when you try to remember a simple fact such as the atomic number for.... (which ever one that may be at the time) you can't and you find yourself hopelessly remembering all of the stories you can created. The problem you encounter is that you can't seem to remember which one goes with what. This may be a great way to remember for short term things but I don't think that you would be able to remember in the long run. Our brains are simply to full of useless nonsense to be as successful as our predecessors. Just try to produce another Einstein these days, it won't happen.

Top - Jim Dodds, Aquatic Culture
Communication with other species is a fascinating concept, but I think some efforts founder because of looking too literally for common ground. A while ago the idea occurred to me that perhaps porpoises don't communicate with anything resembling words at all. Since they explore their environment with sonar, maybe what they do when they "talk" to each other is more like putting out a spectrum of sound vibrations that recreate a picture of what they're "talking" about, rather like an acoustical hologram. The other vocalisations might simply be shared signals meaning something like "Look at this!"

Steve Fenster, Aquatic Culture
Years ago I was a student at San Francisco State University. Occasionally I would run off to Golden Gate Park and visit the Aquarium. I had observed that the dolphins there were usually interested in small children with brightly coloured jackets. I had also heard somewhere that there was a theory that dolphin language/thinking had a mathematical basis.

I hit upon an idea to informally test this idea. I drew a series of concentric geometric shapes, starting with a triangle, then a square, a pentagon, etc., finally ending in a circle. Then I coloured each figure, the shapes with the fewer sides in lower frequency colours. The triangle was red, surrounded by an orange square which in turn was surrounded by a yellow pentagon, and so on.

On my next trip to the aquarium I placed the drawing against the glass of the dolphin enclosure. The dolphin that was present had quite a reaction. He was fully fascinated, perhaps shocked (he evidenced a visceral reaction that I will not describe but which was obvious), then became very excited and followed me where ever I would move back and forth along the glass.

Bala, Aquatic Culture
I wonder if Lilley was ever able to implant dolphin genetic material in a human embryo... He wanted to find out if their telepathic abilities could be adaptable to human communications. I think it could work, as that they are cousins of a HIGHER order. I love this inter-species communications. I had a friend who worked at Yerksies? Chimp-human interaction centre where they helped map the frequencies of brain activities, especially audio and visual. Anyone there active with experiments?

Top - Arnold Skeels, Do Women Prefer 'Manly' Faces?
While reading this article, I could not help but feel like the author missed the most important feature. Male faces indicating higher male hormones have a simpler survival motive that immune responses. Consider that the result of male hormones is often a direct correlation with muscle mass, and therefore physical prowess. Better physical prowess in a primitive environment would definitely be an advantage. Male hormones also regulate aggressive behaviour which may also assist survival.

Top - Wayne Lindsay, Spaceships of the Future
Just finished reading your article on various propulsion systems -sails, plasma, ions and so on. Several years ago I wrote the Canadian Space Agency and a couple of aero manufacturing firms asking if there was any interest in ideas that were thought of by private citizens. The CSA did NOT even bother to answer and the manufacturers said that they would like to see them, but they would NOT pay anything for them, even if they turned out to contain the answers they were seeking. Something for nothing philosophy.
Next I contacted several different people at NASA. They too had the same philosophy as their Canadian counterparts.

Now my question is, "Why do we tolerate such treatment by our Governments and their Agencies?" People like them see absolutely nothing wrong in paying a baseball player several million dollars for 6 or 7 months of sometimes questionable entertainment, but they want to have our ideas DONATED to their Industrial Giants free of charge so that they may go exploring deep space and on out to the Stars.

Sherman Carter, Spaceships of the Future.
While artificially intelligent robots may be used during the early years for exploration into the far reaches of space, there is little point to travel to the stars unless it is intended that humans will go eventually. That is not likely to happen with currently envisioned spaceships. It may seem impractical now, but the only reasonable way to accomplish this is with huge flying cities. Those humans who reach the stars will be the descendants of those who leave the earth. For some, space travel will become a way of life. While the concept may seem impractical today, it is no less so than the prospects for faster than light travel. Neither is it as unreasonable as expecting people to take forty or more years out of their life for space travel. As our technological capabilities increase over the next century or two, this approach will make a lot more sense.

Gabrial, Spaceships of the Future.
It is apparent that the amounts of antimatter needed for interstellar travel are not achievable. Yet we are already making enough to travel great distances within our own solar system. Why isn't NASA making a more concerted effort to explore this area? It is enough to make a person angry. We waste billions of tax dollars every year to support NASA projects and research. And to date, the only significant advance they have given us is an experimental ion drive that barely works. Private researchers have proven that they can create small amounts of antimatter. Small amounts are all that are necessary to do a great deal in near space exploration. It just doesn't add up. We have the technology and desire to begin exploring our own neighborhood, i.e. the solar system, and yet we do not do it. I believe that the problem is not in ourselves. Rather it is in the over paid and over bureaucratized space administration that we lovingly call NASA. If anyone can answer the question as to why we are not utilizing the tools and abilities that we have please inform me. I would greatly appreciate it.

Top - Dave Koe, Alien Contact
It may be possible that extraterrestrials are sending signals by shooting strings of suitably spaced rocks into black holes. This would produce highly energetic wide band and wide angle radiation as a large fraction of the mass of each rock is converted into radiation as the rock disappears into the black hole. Perhaps we should look closely at radiation from black holes to see if there are any non-natural patterns.

Jason Gatlin, Alien Contact
Just had to comment on Dave Koe's interesting theory about picking up radiation like Morse code from black holes. My understanding is that by modern definition, a black hole is a body that theoretically alters space time and produces such gravitational force that anything that passes the event horizon can not escape. This includes all matter and radiation is matter. Even light can not escape from the event horizon. Due to that fact black holes can not be seen or detected by any means currently available to modern science (x rays, radiation, optical, infrared). All we know of them has come from an effect on matter and assuming that it is a black hole causing the effect. Usually a star or large amounts of gas that can span thousands of light years across is what is observed orbiting what is assumed to be a black hole. Once past the event horizon, as far as we know, matter becomes infinitely dense as explained by Einstein's general relativity. So if my understanding is correct, we will have to look for another means of receiving messages.

Top -Steve Fretwell, Are we Alone?
It is a natural history fact that almost all the animal species that have been observed by man co-exist in an ecosystem with other species that have more senses, more powers, and greater intelligence than they do. By definition, they "are not alone" but have to deal with species that they cannot normally sense. Earthworms deal with birds, and have adaptations to do so (avoidance of light, automatically extending into the earth when they are pinched and pulled by a bird etc). But few earthworms ever sense (taste, touch) a bird, and live to tell about it.

They have no way to get evidence for a "third" (much less fourth, fifth, or sixth) sense. So why do we think we are so different? Why do we think we are alone? Ghosts? UFO abductions? We know that there is dark matter out there, stuff that cannot be seen, that has gravity. Might it not be inhabited?

The response of the scientific community to Witztum's Bible Codes research is most interesting. It is exactly what one would expect if we were not alone, if the world was indeed haunted. No research could be more important. If correct, it proves the existence of the "god," Yahweh, whose suggested presence has influenced so much of history. And there is no reasonable critique of it. There are dozens of published confirmations, and even the one peer-reviewed effort to find fault actually replicated its results. That review then tried to rationalize away the results, ignoring the scientific standard that work that is replicated stands. And why?

Why aren't the scientists taking a very close, long look at these bible codes? Why are they almost all either ignoring it, or turning away from all the rules of decent scientific debate and authoritatively, with no supporting evidence, denouncing it. It is just what you would expect demon-possessed minds to do. What other explanation is there for such well trained, and generally will-intentioned scholars to suddenly become intellectual bullies and irrational skeptics? Who, besides the hypothesized demons stand to gain from such behavior? There is no reason to suppose that humans are less alone than other biological species. Like worms surrounded by predatory birds and gardening humans, we are almost certainly surrounded by predatory and guardian (symbiotic) angels, and gods. They have made their presence known, but the predatory ones now find it to their advantage to warp unprotected minds and create the delusion that we of all the species in the world are alone. Those who pray to the symbiotically inclined spirits, to be protected from the evil spirits, are delivered from this madness. They put two and two together, and see the signs of the spiritual world all about them. But those who do not pray, or who pray amiss, and this includes most scientists, become intellectual hypocrites, shrinking back from dealing with honor and integrity with their fellow scientists who have discovered concrete evidence of "contact." Editors note...Some interesting views here. Any comments from those of the 'demon possessed mind' persuasion welcome.

Top - Ed Hill, A Supernova Sheds Light on Dark Energy
Could those who believe in dark energy be among those for whom the lights of reason have gone out? So many complicated explanations based on the concept that the red shift means that the universe is expanding. I believe that the universe has always been filled endlessly with a variety of matter and energy much like we see in all directions with our latest and greatest equipment. In my universe we don't expand or contract on the grand scale because the pull of gravity is essentially equal from all directions. Everything is in a kind of spongy tapestry that has some limited give and take, a little play in the local density allowing for areas of the universe to wander about a bit, but never permitting them to drift beyond a limit where the off-setting gravitational pulls again equal out.

And I shudder every time I hear that balloon analogy. Excuse the pun, but your balloon is full of holes. It must mean that on the grand scale gravity has no affect and everything has been expanding since the big bang (or at least from some point in time.) And is there only one of these expanding balloons, alone in what is otherwise infinitely empty space? Excuse me, but no one has any way of knowing that to be the case. I would say that if a big bang could occur once out of nothing, it would be likely to be able to occur more than once. In fact, if I let my mind go shamelessly into speculation, if something like a big bang could happen once, I could see it happening in many places and times elsewhere in the emptiness. Pretty soon, relatively, it wouldn't be so empty out there any more. There would be some point when these stupid expanding balloons would run into one another in some corner of the emptiness. Darn inconvenient since gravity would all of a sudden figure into the movement.

Top - Trey Elsey, Ocean Forces Threaten Our Climate
I just read the article at http://www.firstscience.com/site/articles/gribbin.asp, and I can't help butroll my eyes. The article conveys global warming as fact, and not astheory. Unfortunately, climatology is one of those "inexact sciences." Like economics and meteorology, interpreting past events is usually difficult, and predicting future events nearly impossible. I can't imagine that the models used by climatologists are even as good as those used by meteorologists. There are probably thousands of factors influencing global climate, and any one of them could possibly throw the "theory" out the window. What's more, we have less than 100 years of accurate historicaldata to draw experience from.

I just think that it undermines scientific integrity to present theory as fact.

Top - Norm, A Beginner's Guide to Antimatter
I agree if people want to make antimatter that it will be very expensive. However, why not obtain antimatter from comets?

You will find www.matter-antimatter.com to be very interesting, since comets are natural sources of antimatter. There are two black holes in the centre of galaxies. One is composed of matter and the other is composed of antimatter. The spiral arms in the Milky Way Galaxy contain a similar number of matter and antimatter stars, which is in agreement with the Big Bang Theory. Since light (photons) coming from matter and antimatter stars is the same, astronomers have incorrectly assumed that all stars are made from matter.

Everything in our solar system is composed of matter except comets that are composed of antimatter: 109 antimatter elements have been identified and included in a Periodic Table of Matter-AntiMatter Elements. Each of the antimatter element's nuclear, chemical and physical characteristics have been identified. Today, scientists and astrophysics know almost as much about antimatter as they know about matter.

The energy produced from matter and antimatter provides a tremendous opportunity for humanity. With this enormous source of energy, all the third world countries could be brought into the 21st century without destroying our environment; and turning the Star Trek Dream into Reality. What do you think?

Top - William Sokeland, Extinction!
Why cannot all the mechanisms of extinction be connected for mass extinctions? So that the sequence of events could be;
1/ Large impacts cause large flood basalt on the opposite side of the
Earth. -->
2/ Large flood basalt causes large changes in global climate (much warmer). -->
3/ Impact in Oceans cause ocean basins and tsunami that could overflow
continents. -->
4/ These types of waves could destroy the mammoth and other large land species. -->
5/ If the strike was tangential from west to east water could be launched into outer space - freeze there and re-enter as icy comets. -->
6/ The additional water in the upper atmosphere could create the greenhouse effect that triggered the Holocene epoch.
This type of climate would last as long as it took for the outer space water to re-enter into our oceans. I understand there is still a great deal of water in Earth's stratosphere. A tangential water strike in the Pacific Ocean to initiate the Holocene may not leave a crater. If all the extinction mechanisms were linked to a form of impact, the impact could be stopped (Star Wars Missile Shield). If it is related to volcanics that just appear from the centre of Earth without external trigger, we have no chance.

Bill Tibbe, Extinction!
In the June 8th 2001 journal 'Science' it was postulated that all species weighing over 220 pounds in Australia became extinct shortly after (1,000 years) the arrival of humans (ancient hunters with fire, spears and an appetite for meat) on the continent 50,000 years ago. And that all large mammals in North America became extinct after the arrival of humans 13,600 years ago.
Does anyone have a position or comment about the present potential extinction of elephants, rhinos, gorillas, tigers, grizzly bears etc due to subsistence, market or sport hunting?

Merlin Adams, Extinction!
Bill Tibbe: We are all a part of nature. And as a "Great Ape" we do what all species would do unless starved or predated or injured - take all the food and territory and breed out of control. Sub-species of us have gone extinct; surviving numbers have subsequently built up. We are the cause of the sixth and current major extinction. If our numbers don't mean that we will be the seventh, I expect the next large flood-basalt volcanism will sort out the problem.

Jerry Asher, Extinction!
Dr. MacLeod's article, Extinction, analyzes several extrinsic mechanisms for the disappearance of species except for a very crucial one. A new theory proposes that animals become extinct because the population pyramid inverts, a mechanism that is intrinsic and independent of species, habitat and epoch. As a result of the enrichment of the gene pool, animals progressively conquer common diseases and attain the natural life span for the species. This enables the population to grow progressively older and more numerous. However, as the population grows older, an increasingly greater percentage of them cross the upper reproductive age boundary. This inevitably leads to zero population growth (ZPG) followed by decline. The theory predicts the extinction of man within 500 years and is consistent with demographic facts. We are getting older because we have conquered many diseases, and will approach ZPG in one or two hundred years. What then?

Top - David Hemp, Earth's Fidgeting Climate
Earth's Fidgeting Climate...Very Interesting. But what about methane gas? We have all that Methane Gas being released by the ocean bottoms with every little disturbance,landslide, volcanic activity, etc. And with only the slight rise of only 1 - 2 degrees of the ocean water at that depth world wide, trillions of tons of methane would be released all at once! It is being kept in the very unstable condition it is just barely by the enormous pressures at the bottom. So, any Global warming that was capable of heating that mass of ocean water just that little bit could cause massive Global Warming in just a decade or so after that point! Whole coastal cities would be a hundred feet under water with the melting of the polar ice caps. Geeze ... think how crowded the Lake Tahoe area will be then!

Top - Michael Hayes, The Audacious Space Elevator
I enjoyed your article on the NASA workshop concerning Space Elevators (SE). I have looked at this concept for about 20 years and would like to bring a few points to the table. 1) The end purpose of a SE can be achieved in the near term without the need for exotic materials or sky high buildings. 2) The potential for large scale energy harvesting from the Global Electrical Circuit (GEC) is possible using a scaled back SE system.The first point centres around the "end purpose". If that purpose is to provide truly cheap space transport, the energy factor is the key and not the length of the structure. Any structure that breaches the upper atmosphere from the earths surface will cause a closing of what is called the Global Electrical Circuit (GEC). The GEC is energised (think lightening bolts) by the sun/earth interaction and can not be completely discharged (or even close). By building a transatmospheric structure (TS) with this in mind, energy becomes abundant. The technology to provide this type of structure can be found in a number of industries. The design of a TS can utilise many launch modes but one of the most energy efficient would be the use of an atmospherically shielded linear accelerator (ASLA). Large bore flexible tubing that could be used in this design aspect is available through the commercial fishing industry. It is not as large as a final design would require but is large enough to send small payloads aloft. Building such a system can use segmented construction techniques which would allow the system to be deployed (and retrieved) segment by segment. A good deal of energy would be needed to elevate the tether until the energy from the GEC can be collected. At that point, the system is energy free (and then some).The upper stage ion collectors can be incorporated into reasonable sized lifting bodies attached to the large bore tubing. This first step in a practical near term "Space Elevator" is needed for a number of reasons. The energy collection factor is first and foremost. Space, like any other industry, needs cash flow. This new approach could provide large cash flows while the full concept is developed. Henry Ford did not set out to build Lincoln Continentals. He set out to create cash flow and as many practical cars as he could. Let me know what you think about this. Editors note...Well, you heard Michael. Let us know what you think!

David Jefferis, The Audacious Space Elevator.
Nice to see the elevator's still around. I wrote about the idea way back in 1979 with my co-author, the late Kenneth Gatland, in the illustrated Usborne title 'Book of the Future'. We also featured the first Lunar Olympics and had fun working out some appropriate handicaps for lunar environment!
David has kindly sent a couple of images to accompany his comment - A 1978 rendering of an elevator and a Russo-Kenyan athlete running the flame in the first Lunar Olympics...!

Top - Richard Jones, Hitching a Ride on a Magnetic Bubble
I read with great interest Dr. Tony Phillip's article on magnetic bubbles and solar wind. I was just wondering if you could tell me at what sort of distance the bubble would "burst", if it would burst at all.

Tony, Hitching a Ride on a Magnetic Bubble
Electromagnetism must be the way forward for this planet. It is available for harvest all around us. Research should be more extensive in such fields.

Neil Burge, Hitching a Ride on a Magnetic Bubble
Hello, I was reading your article with interest when it occurred to me that this form of travel would be of no use to interstellar voyages as the solar winds from the star you were approaching would surely cancel out those from our own star at some distance away, leaving the craft in deep space. How would this be overcome, or is the propulsion system just being developed for deep space probes?

Bob Pickering, Hitching a Ride on a Magnetic Bubble.
It sounds fascinating and the article more or less suggests that this method of propulsion is bound to work, it's just a matter of time, effort and investment. Is it anticipated that such craft will be able to travel back towards the sun and be steerable ? Rather like a boat sailing into the wind by tacking it would presumably be necessary for the bubble to have an adjustable profile.

Top - Andrew Kissel, The Space Hopping Hyperplane
Talking about hyperspace and the idea of extra, curled up dimensions....

So what of inter-dimensional travel? Well in essence I see this as a possibility. For, it would be suspected that if one were to use this detected gravity between dimensions, and, with the help of enough energy, to make a "tear" in space, that it would leave a temporary hole that could be traversed. This tear would be very temporary, as what we are essentially doing is "borrowing" energy to penetrate through space and time. Each particle attempting to penetrate would have to borrow energy to make its way through the unseen barrier, and repay it once it has reached the other side. At the quantum level this is definitely possible. But to imagine a human being, with quadrillions of atoms and smaller plank-length sidex particles, the idea that every one of these making it through the tear gets more complex and less probable.

Top - Rick Hanrahan, The Theory of Everything
I have just finished reading the article "The Theory of Everything" by Michio Kaku, and have to say that it was very interesting. But I do have a few thoughts. If the smallest unit of time is infinitely small and you were to go back in time, then you would need a precise time to enter the past world. But how can you enter a past world at a precise time if time is infinite? Also, if time travel is possible then why hasn't anybody come back from the future to our time to prove it? How about if we make a statement to the world like "To the people of the future: if yee discover time travel, come back in time and walk in to this room now.....". Just a thought...

Archil Kapanadze, The Theory of Everything
I have just finished reading the article "The Theory of Everything" by Michio Kaku, and have to say that it was interesting to watch the logic of a Physicist who trys to create Physics on the basis of mathematical physics. It is immpossible. If we remember our history, Albert Einstein based his theory on the Mikelson-Morly experiment. The zero result of this experiment was not interpreted correctly. Can we see the effect of ether at 30 km/sec if it appears after 200 000 km/sec (it comes from E=mc2)? No.The Bohr postulats was the basis of quantum theory and then this theory explains the physical essence of the postulates with mathematical methods. I do not think it is correct from a Physics point of view.In the middle of last century Physics was replaced by Mathematical Physics and the superstring theory is the result of it.The real physical essence of nature can be explaned by the "Ipotron theory of matter" by Rezo Khomeriki, which is unknown to scientific society because of the bad financial condition of its author.On the basis of this theory gravitation can not be gathered with the other three forces because it has a different genesis.

Top - Clifford Black, Sonnet to Science
Your best feature is poetry! "Sonnet to Science," by Edgar Allan Poe, has the usual wonderful imagery for which this Gothic muse is known. The sonnet seems, at first, to be only a lament castigating "science" for its cold, hard objectivity, which spoils the idylls of the aesthete and the dreamer. Science dispassionately ruins myths and technically quantifies the stars and the storied constellations they form. However, Poe is also talking about the reality of death:"Vulture, whose wings are dull realities . . ." and "Who wouldst not leave [one] in his wandering . . . " That vulture has "torn . . .from me/The summer dream beneath the tamarind tree." This is vintage Poe, whose stock in trade was the macabre, but there is also a sweetness and beauty about this examination of a sad fact of life.

Top - Mr Sugandi, The Age of El Nino
Many Indonesian climatological experts believe that El Nino and La Nina have significant impacts in Indonesia. Common people like me just think that El Nino causes a prolonged dry season (and to some extent causes forest fires) while La Nina causes severe flooding problem in Indonesia. Whether that is true or not, there is no logical explanation so far; and I would be interested to hear the views of others as to the effects and impacts of El Nino and La Nina in their regions.

Sue at Deane Construction, The Age of El Nino
I read the article about the effects of El Nino and La Nina on how plankton are effected by the constant changes in temperature. As someone living in California, I remember the effects of El Nino a few years ago. From the standpoint of someone who works as a contractor in the State of California, weather can have a significant effect upon working conditions. My question is whether we will be experiencing the effects of El Nino again or will a dryer California be scheduled for 2002? I know its not an exact science but anyones opinion on possible changes would be interesting.

Top - Thorsten Krug, Terraforming Mars
This was an interesting article, but I think they forget something. As far as I remember the facts about martian gravity, it is not sufficient to hold the gas very long within the athmosphere. That is the reason why the winds on Mars are quite weak, because the athmosphere is far less dense than here on Earth. A little breeze on Mars would be a full grown blizzard here on Earth. I do not know how long this terraforming could last, but I suppose not too long.

Top - Phil McCarty, Plastics You Could Eat
What about the high fossil fuel consumption in the production of these biodegradeable polymers Dr. Sykes?...not even mentioning the pollution involved with the consuming machinery necessary for the production of these biopolymers.....Is it cost effective and/or evironmentally friendly to produce these polymers as a general container replacement yet?...

Top - Babu Rao, Recipe For The Universe
As one thinks of the possibility of many universes. And that the whole Universe is governed by just six numbers.
One can also think there is a possibility of some entity manipulating these quantities (numbers) and experimenting with different combinations - assuming that such entity has INTENTION to manipulate these quantities. Just as a higher order living being (like man) on the earth is having some INTENTION and doing or attempting to do certain things, can't we assume that there can be some entity with some INTENTION and experimenting with universes. Just as man can change his INTENTION depending on the feedback of his earlier actions. This entity also can change its intention depending on the feedback of its earlier actions. The time scales of such an entity may be on gigantic scale. And why might there not be many such entities?

Top - Ronald Kowalski, Super-Thunderstorms on Jupiter
I find it a little odd that you do not mention the direction of flow in the storms i.e. highs and lows above and below the equator. Especially, if core convection produces different effects than those experienced on Earth (surface heat transfer).
There are some who believe tetrahedral dynamics and Chaos Theory (Lorenz Attractor) explains much more about dynamic flow than traditional meteorology techniques - the forming and unfolding of planets, as well as related weather effects.

If you would like to make a comment on the above, or on any of our articles or poems, then please e-mail us.

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